Indian subcontinent which represents one of the greatest emporia of natural wealth and biodiversity is inhabited by more than 53.8 million tribal people. The diversity in the nature provides them with variety in the diet and contributes to household food security. Root and tuber crops being cheap and rich sources of energy capable of alleviating hunger was integrated with the food habits of the tribal population of India since time immemorial. Although there is wide geographical diversity in the tuber crops of India, their occurrence and spread mostly depend on the localized climate and growth environment. Historically, tribal and rural people have adapted themselves to identifying and collecting wild tubers from forests which suit their dietary needs and developed a range of diverse processing methods. Some of the wild species have since been domesticated by certain progressive tribes, while other tribes still depend on the collection and consumption from the wild habitats. India holds rich genetic diversity in tropical root and tuber crops particularly aroids, yams and several minor tuber crops. Most of the tuber crops such as cassava, sweet potatoes, yams and aroids provide beyond calories, nutrition also by virtue of their high content of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Nevertheless, malnutrition is a growing curse among the tribal population of India. While more than 53% of the tribal children are stunted, infant mortality sprouting from poor maternal nutrition is also on the increase. Addressing such issues necessitate large scale awareness on the tribal food habits, the nutritional status of the communities and possible interventions that could convince them on the importance of nutritious food. In this context, tropical tuber crops owing to their specific advantages such as ability to grow in poor or marginal soils and climate resilient nature coupled with the nutritional benefits of both roots and leaves of selected crops like sweet potato or taro, assume significance. Information on the indigenous knowledge on the utilization pattern of tuber crops by the tribal people, despite being documented by some researchers, remain scattered. Besides, a wealth of information has been generated over the years on the improved varieties, management practices and value addition by the research organizations and universities of India. This National Conference is intended to bring together the research efforts on tuber crops which would permit an appraisal and selection of the best technologies for the tribal welfare programmes in India. It would also provide an opportunity to chalk out strategies to enhance the living standards of the tribal communities. The conference is also visualised as an eye-opener for the policy makers to introduce feasible technologies in the tribal belts and to popularise nutritious processed foods from tuber crops in the noon meal programme of tribal children, which could also help ensure larger participation in schools and kindle their interest towards education. A Tribal Upliftment Strategic Plan for India is expected to be the major outcome of this conference.